Pakistan’s Foreign Policy towards Afghanistan: A Case Study of Zia’s Regime


Pakistan, Afghanistan, U.S, USSR, Foreign policy, Zia Ul Haq, Soviet Invasion.

How to Cite

Imraz Muhammad, Dr. Muhammad Tariq, & Saqib Javid. (2023). Pakistan’s Foreign Policy towards Afghanistan: A Case Study of Zia’s Regime. Rashhat-E-Qalam, 3(1), 30-43.


To secure national interest in abroad, states formulate foreign policy. The main purpose of the research study is to analyse the Pakistan’s foreign policy towards Afghanistan during Zia Ul Haq regime. Being close neighbours sharing 2252 km long border both Pakistan and Afghanistan failed to make sound and mutually beneficial relationship. Since independence, Pakistan has changed again and again her foreign policy towards Afghanistan to secure its national interest; such was the case of Zia when USSR invaded Afghanistan. When USSR attacked Afghanistan it posed direct threat to the domestic security and territorial integrity of Pakistan. It compelled the policy makers of Pakistan to make an abrupt change in their Afghan policy. Islamabad had opted to support Afghan freedom fighters in order to pull out USSR threat. Zia’s foreign policy had posted worst challenges and implications for Pakistan along with some opportunities. This paper is also analysing these developments. It had strategic, political and socio-economic implications for Pakistan. Above all due to Zia's policy, the government of Afghanistan and its general masses started to consider Pakistan as its enemy at all. As it was U.S interest to dismantle and disrupt USSR and in some instant U.S persuaded Zia Ul Haq to adopt this anti USSR policy and pro-Mujahedeen policy so it provided some opportunities to Pakistan like silence on Pakistan’s nuclear development program, economic aid, technological assistance and getting of weapons from United States. Zia’s policy towards Afghanistan had failed as it had created more challenges for Pakistan instead of securing the preconceived national interests.


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