Rashhat-e-Qalam http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq <p><strong>Rashhat-e-Qalam</strong> is multidisciplinary journal of educational research and innovation. It is an open access bi -annually journal that publishes research outcomes with significant contributions to the understanding and improvement of the educational processes. <strong>Rashhat-e-Qalam</strong> collects research results from different disciplines and methodological approaches and research carried out by interdisciplinary research related to education.</p> <p>In this line, disciplinary and interdisciplinary works related to educational research are welcome in areas including education, sociology, Arcialogy, psychology, history, philosophy, economics, linguistics, geography , political science and International Relations.</p> <p>The aim of the journal is to bring forth the knowledge of various faculties in one platform to have authentic critical appreciation. Its interdisciplinary approach is deliberate to bring the internationally famed scholars on one platform to illumine the world of knowledge. Peer review process is indispensable for all the articles will be conveyed via e-mail. The papers ought to be submitted observing the instructions of the journal and must be written in the scholarly style and format.</p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without any charges to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p> </p> en-US rashhatqalam@gmail.com (Dr.Muhammand Altaf Yousof Zai) rashhatqalam@gmail.com (Altaf Yousofzai) Tue, 14 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0800 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Bahmani Sultanate-Their contributions towards Art and Architecture http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/86 <p><em>During the five hundred years after Prophet Mohammed’s (S) death in A.D. 632, Islam spread far beyond its place of origin in the Arabian Peninsula. As Islam spread, a distinctive style of Islamic art gradually developed. It was used mainly for religious architecture, book illustrations, and the decoration of pottery, metal-ware, and other useful objects. Islamic art was influenced by the artistic styles included late Roman, Byzantine, and Persian art. The new chapter which was opened in the Islamic period led to the creation of remarkable religious buildings. Iranian arts such as calligraphy, wall paintings, stucco (Plaster-cut), mirror work, tile work and metal art became closely tied together in this new era. Islamic architecture and building decoration are among the most beautiful means of expression. Decoration does not play such an important role in any other type of architecture.Islamic art not only describes the art created specially in the service of the Muslim faith but also characterizes the art and architecture historically produced in the lands ruled by Muslims artists.Calligraphy is the most important and pervasive element in the Islamic art. A striking example of this influence is seen in the north Karnataka i.e., in Gulbarga, Bidar and Bijapur the most beautiful wall paintings and stone engravings inside the tombs and outer parts of the architecture.</em></p> Rehaman Patel Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/86 Tue, 14 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0800 Mainstreaming FATA through 25th Amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan, Implications for Counter Terrorism Efforts http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/17 <p><em>Because of terrorism stemming from the unstable Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan has increased its geopolitical prominence in international politics since 2001. The Frontier Crime Regulation (FCR) 1901, which was inherited from the British, regulated this semi-autonomous region of the country. It remained a grey region after the partition, with the government having little control. During the War on Terror, Pakistan incurred massive losses. Consequently, Pakistan's political parties and military establishment have decided to bring reforms to the legal, socio-economic, political, and security systems there. Following that, the proposal to merge FATA into the mainstream was debated by various stakeholders for several years. In May 2018, Pakistan's parliament approved the merger of the FATA and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa under the 25th Constitutional Amendment (KP). This paper aims to highlight the efforts by the US and Pakistan towards counter terrorism. It is also studying the impacts of this merger on counter terrorism efforts. Further, the impact on Pakistan's internal security was also examined in this study.</em></p> Hameed Ullah Khan, Dr. Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/17 Tue, 14 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0800 Afghanistan-Pakistan Relations During Ashraf Ghani Era http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/19 <p><strong>:&nbsp; </strong><em>Since the emergence of Ashraf Ghani as a president in Afghanistan as a result of the 2014 elections, a dramatic shift from conflict to cooperation in Pak-Afghan relations can be seen. As compared with the Hamid Karzai era which engulfed Pakistan under the shadow of the blame game. In the era of Ashraf Ghani, several military CBMs were taken from both sides reflected a positive approach in crisis and conflict-ridden relations of both the states. Pakistan’s military and security establishment is keen to sort out the issue of cross-border militancy. In this regard, border fencing started from the Pakistan side can be termed as a positive initiative to ensure the security of peoples living on both sides of the Durand Line. Similarly, Ashraf Ghani was keen to reconcile with the Taliban elements, and in this regard, he needs Pakistan’s support. Pakistan played an important role to bring the Taliban towards negotiation with the Afghan regime because previously the Taliban never want to talk with the Ashraf Ghani regime. And not considered his government as the legitimate one. It was Pakistan’s efforts that an agreement of peace and reconciliation was finalized among the Taliban and Afghan government. As peace in Afghanistan will pave the way for peace and friendly relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan. </em></p> HUMA QAYUM, Dr. Muhammad Tariq Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/19 Tue, 14 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0800 Pakistan’s Foreign Policy towards Afghanistan: A Case Study of Zia’s Regime http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/35 <p><em>To secure national interest in abroad, states formulate foreign policy. The main purpose of the research study is to analyse the Pakistan’s foreign policy towards Afghanistan during Zia Ul Haq regime. Being close neighbours sharing 2252 km long border both Pakistan and Afghanistan failed to make sound and mutually beneficial relationship. Since independence, Pakistan has changed again and again her foreign policy towards Afghanistan to secure its national interest; such was the case of Zia when USSR invaded Afghanistan. When USSR attacked Afghanistan it posed direct threat to the domestic security and territorial integrity of Pakistan. It compelled the policy makers of Pakistan to make an abrupt change in their Afghan policy. Islamabad had opted to support Afghan freedom fighters in order to pull out USSR threat. Zia’s foreign policy had posted worst challenges and implications for Pakistan along with some opportunities. This paper is also analysing these developments. It had strategic, political and socio-economic implications for Pakistan. Above all due to Zia's policy, the government of Afghanistan and its general masses started to consider Pakistan as its enemy at all. As it was U.S interest to dismantle and disrupt USSR and in some instant U.S persuaded Zia Ul Haq to adopt this anti USSR policy and pro-Mujahedeen policy so it provided some opportunities to Pakistan like silence on Pakistan’s nuclear development program, economic aid, technological assistance and getting of weapons from United States. Zia’s policy towards Afghanistan had failed as it had created more challenges for Pakistan instead of securing the preconceived national interests.</em></p> Imraz Muhammad, Dr. Muhammad Tariq, Saqib Javid Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/35 Tue, 14 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0800 Melancholies of "YAKH BASTA DEHLEEZ" http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/18 <p><em><strong>&nbsp;</strong>"YAKH BASTA DEHLEEZ" is the collection of Dr Sayed Zubair Shah short stories which portrays the post 9/11 horrible scenario. This collection&nbsp; has 15 short stories at most and each short story is unique of its kind. Though the collection is the start of Dr Sayed Zubair, but&nbsp; one, while reading, can judge that the writer was already at a prominent distination of short story 'afsana'. From that distination, he observed the scenario from each angle and then through thorough care , he placed each aspect to the readers with accomplishment.</em></p> <p><em>Dr.S.Zubair Shah's “Yakhbasta dehleez” has the recurring themes like&nbsp; terrorism, fear, pashtoon traditions, political and economic plight, global and regional catastroph.In short, the collection of Dr Zubair shah is highly appreciable and worth-reading.The piece is grand, both from intellectual and artistic perspective.</em></p> Muhammad Imran Mahil, Raj Muhammad Afridi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/18 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Sharib rudulvi ki fiction tanqeed http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/36 <p><em>Among the progressive critics,sharib rudulvi ‘s name is very famous.many of his books guide not only students but also teachers in criticism.his popular book,jadeed tanqeed usool o nazryat(modern criticism ,principles and theroies)is still needed by students of research .sharib rudulvi has also made a name as a fiction critic .there are several articles in fiction criticism that identify you as a fiction critic .among them are premchand,manto,ahmed nadeem qasmi,iqbal majeed and abid sohail etc.One of Sharib Rudulvi's most popular books is "Jadeed Tanqeed Usool o Nazryat," which translates to "Modern Criticism, Principles and Theories." This book is considered to be a seminal work on literary criticism, and it is still highly recommended for research students who want to develop a deeper understanding of literary theory and criticism. The book covers a wide range of topics, including the nature of literary language, the role of the author, the meaning of literary works, and the different approaches to literary criticism.In addition to his contributions to literary criticism, Sharib Rudulvi is also highly regarded as a critic of fiction. He has written several articles on the works of well-known authors such as Premchand, Manto, Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi, Iqbal Majeed, and Abid Sohail, among others. His articles have provided valuable insights into the themes, characters, and styles of these authors, making them essential reading for anyone interested in the world of fiction.Overall, Sharib Rudulvi's contributions to the field of literary criticism have been significant, and his works continue to be highly regarded and widely read. He has earned a reputation as a thoughtful, insightful, and original critic, and his works remain essential reading for anyone interested in the world of literature and literary criticism.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> Prof. Aslam Jamshedpuri Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/36 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 THE ILLUSTRATED JATAKAS OF GOUTHAM BUDDHA AT ANJATHA CAVES http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/38 <p><em>In the present study, attempt has been made to describe the Jatakas of Ajantha caves of Maharashtra state, India, The Jatakas are the stories of the previous births of Lord Gautam Buddha, who is believed as Boddhisattva (a being who is in the process of obtaining Buddhahood), to have passed innumerable existence, both human and animal, persistently qualifying himself for Buddhahood by the greatest acquisition (Paramita) of all kinds of virtues.The Jataka stories are a voluminous group of writing local to India concerning the past births of Gautama Buddha in both human and creature structure. The future Buddha might show up as a ruler, an outsider, a divine being, an elephant—in any case, in whatever structure, he displays some ideals that the story subsequently instills.</em></p> Dr. Kashinath D. W Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/38 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Bachoon Ki Tarbiyat: Walidain Aur Adab e Atfaal http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/37 <p><em>&nbsp;Bachoon ke ba adab, naik aur saleem ul aqal banane ke liye walidain, ustadoon aur aziz o aqarib ki tawajuh, tarbiyat aur rahnumayi naguzir hai. Shakhsiyat sazi aur kirdarsazi main taleem o tarbiyat ke sath gair darsi kutub, rasa'il aur adab e atfaal se muta'liq tamaam chezain aham role ada karti hain. Dekha gaya hai ki school ki darsi kutub bachoon ko khatir kha mawad nahi dey patiin, jabki adab e atfaal se muta'liq gair nisabi mawad unko tafrih aur zehni sakoon faraham karne ka aik aham aur fa'al wasela sabit hua hai. ye na sirf bachoon ke liye mufeed shagul mahya karta hai, balki bache tamaam tar salahiyatoon ko baro e kar lakar uski kirdar sazi main aham role nibhata hai. Is maqala main buniyadi aur sanvi makhazoon se istifada hasil kiya jayega.&nbsp; Bachoon ki kirdar sazi aur zehni nashonuma main walidain ki tarbiyat aur adab e atfaal kis hadd tak zaroori hai, uska jaiza liya jayega.</em></p> Shakir Ahmad Naikoo Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/37 Tue, 14 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0800 Linguistic Reforms & Dispositions of Nashik: A Review http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/87 <p><em>Nashik was a unique poet by nature, he had the ability of innovation the highest level. Nashik declared many techniques obsolete and brought the language to a new light. From a personal standpoint, Nashik’s movement presented the Lucknow style of Urdu language, he corrected the principles of used words and remembrance of the words have been formulated. The result of all these efforts is that the Nashik language is became the test in Lucknow.&nbsp; Rekhta was given the name of Urdu language by him. Nasikh gave up the simple poetry and adopted the new color of poetry by naming it as "Taza Goi".Undoubtedly, the product of the Nashik movement is Kant's sorting and trimming.We can say that the nature of Nashik movement is cultural and decorative. </em><em>In the poet's heart, the conscious unit of the society shines. It is a mirror of the unity in which the realities of multiplicity are moderated and give the art an effective tone. Mansabi is to be a thought-provoking symbol of the past; an interpreter of the present and a language lover of the future so that essay writing and linguistic virtues remain in front of him, which can give the credibility of society and literature wide and inclusive.</em></p> Muhammad Mohsin Khalid Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/87 Tue, 14 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0800 A critical study of Iqbal Shanasi by renowned researcher Mr. Barni http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/88 <p><em>The specialists of Iqbal extended the way for new topics. Mr. Burni also explored a new corner and provided a new topic to the students of Iqbal Studies for research and criticism. He had passed Indian Administrative Service competition exam in his first attempt. He proved his abilities by holding the highest government posts at the provincial and federal levels. He had special interest in Iqbal Studies. Despite his professional responsibilities, he remained practically active for the improvement of Iqbal's thought. He preserved Iqbal’s letters in four volumes. The preface of the first volume is an authentic document of Urdu language and literature. He also delivered a lecture which was published in two books under different names with modifications and additions. That lecture is very important in terms of topics. Its study reveals new aspects of research and criticism. Its study will broaden the scope of research of patriotism in the light of Islamic concept.</em><br /><em>Iqbal was a supporter of unity among different sects and religions. He had also quoted poems appropriate to the subject. Iqbal also studied Indian thought and philosophy in depth. He was a well-read man with a wide range of boundaries. Restricting Iqbal's thought can lead to misconception. Mr. Burni has given examples of Iqbal's patriotism. This article provides a comparison between the views of Iqbal and Burni. In this regard, this article invites students of Iqbal studies to research, critique and endorse. The study of this article provides new topics for research, takes Iqbal's thought out of the sea of darkness and widens the scope of Iqbal Studies.</em></p> Muhammad Amir Iqbal, Ubaida Tasneem, Maria Bilal Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://rashhatqalam.com/index.php/rq/article/view/88 Tue, 14 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0800