Cinema, Iranian cinema, Greek cinema, Indian cinema, Film-Farsi, New-Wave, Neo-Realism Iranian style

How to Cite



Cinema has been playing one of the most significant influences in our modern life. A lot of countries are involved in filmmaking, so the Iranian has been actively involved in cinema which has become famous across the world. Iranian cinema offers a fascinating even astonishing masterwork; it gives an artistic sophistication, mesmerisation, and passionate significance to humanism. While Hollywood, dominated by flashy fantasies, has put up many national cinemas out of business, Iran's filmmakers have still continued to influence the world audience with their unique and notable formal ingenuity and adherence to real-life people and their problems. In the international arena, Iranian cinema inspired successive generations. There has never been a bit of a moment in the history of Iranian cinema when it remained restricted to its current domains or boundary. Iranian cinema is huge and heterogeneous in its character, as are the historical-cultural, political, and social aspects of Iran itself. 'Realism' in Iranian films can be elucidated through different models or patterns, which has been attempted to deal with in this paper.


Abbas Kiarostami – Articles and Interviews.

Michael Abecassis, Iran war cinema: Between Reality and Fiction, Iranian Studies, Taylor and Francis, Vol.

, No. 3, 2011, p. 387.

Peter Chelkowski, Cambridge History of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 7, 1991, p. 766.

A documentary of Muzaffar al-Din Shah’s coronation in 1896 was also filmed.

Negar Mottahedeh, Iranian Cinema in the 20th century: A sensory history, Iranian Studies, Taylor and Francis, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2009, p. 529.

Shahla Mirbakhtiyar, Iranian Cinema and the Islamic Revolution, McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, U.S., 2006, p. 06.

Hamid Naficy, Iranian Cinema under the Islamic Republic, American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 97, No. 3, 1995, p. 548.

Ibid., p. 765.


Ibid., p. 793.

S. Zeydabadi Nejad, Iranian Intellectuals and Contact with the West: The case of Iranian Cinema, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Taylor and Francis, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1997-2007, p. 378.

Shehla Mirbakhtiyar, op.cit., p. 13.

Motazedi was the cameraman in this film. See Peter Chelkowski, op.cit., p. 794.

Hamid Reza Sadr, Iranian cinema: A political history, Tauris, London, 2006, p. 15.

Shehla Mirbakhtiyar, op.cit., p. 21.

Peter Chelkowski, op.cit., p. 795.

Shehla Mirbakhtiyar, op.cit., p. 14.

The Lor Girl was first shown in Tehran in January 1933 and the movie continued to be shown in cinema for the next seven months.

Parviz Jahid, Directory of World Cinema: Iran, Intellect, Bristol, 2012, p. 69.

The term Film-Farsi was coined by Iranian film critic Hushang Kavusi.

Reza Poudeh and M. Reza Shirvani, Issues and Paradoxes in the development of Indian National Cinema: An overview, Iranian Studies, Taylor and Francis, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2008, p. 324.

Shehla Mirbhaktiyar, op.cit., p. 37.

Godfrey Cheshire, Where Iranian cinema is? Film Comment, Film Society of Lincoln Center, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1993, p. 41.

Vrasidas Karalis, A History of Greek cinema, Fall, Cineaste Publishers Inc., Vol. 37, No. 4, 2012, p. 287.

Peter Chelkowski, op.cit., p. 799.

Hamid Naficy, A Social History of Iranian Cinema, Duke University Press, U.S, 2011, p. 91.

Geetanjali Chandra and Sudha Bhatia, Social impact of Indian cinema- An odyssey from reel to real, Global Media Journal, 2019, p. 01.

Parviz Jahid, op.cit., p. 55.

Ibid., p. 57.

Ibid., p. 69.

Peter Chelkowski, op.cit., p. 796.

Shehla Mirbhaktiyar, op.cit., p. 31.

Hamid Reza Sadr, op.cit., p. 432.

Hamid Reza Sadr, op.cit., p. 03.

Hamid Naficy, Iranian Writers, the Iranian Cinema, and the case of “Dash Akol," Iranian Studies, Taylor and Francis, Vol. 18, No. 2/4, 1985, p. 235.

Reza Poudeh and M. Reza Shirvani, op.cit., p. 325.

Negar Mottahedeh, op.cit., p. 540.

Mohammad Jafar Yousefian Kenari, Mostafa Mokhtabad, Kiarostami’s Unfinished cinema, and its post-modern Reflections, Intl. J. Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 2010, p. 24.

Persheng Vaziri, Iranian Documentary Cinema between Reality and Fiction, Middle East Report, Middle East Research and Information Project, No. 225, 2002, p. 53.

Godfrey Cheshire, 'Taste of cherry,' The Criterion Collection, Firouzan film, September 2008.

Hamid Naficy, Neorealism Iranian style, Global Neorealism: The Transnational History of a Film Style, University Press of Mississippi, 2012. pp. 226-239.

Stephen Weinberger, Neorealism Iranian style, Iranian Studies, Taylor and Francis, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2007, p. 5

Hamid Naficy, op.cit., p. 232.

Negar Mottahadeh, op.cit., p. 545.

Hamid Naficy, "Veiled vision powerful presences: Women in post-revolutionary Iranian Cinema, In the Eye of the Storm: Women in Post-revolutionary Iran, Syracuse, 1994, p. 132.

Rahul Hamid, A filmmaker at the barricades: The cinematic and political evolution of Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Cineaste, Cineaste Publishers Inc., Vol. 34, No. 4, 2009, p. 07.

A speech by Ayatollah Khomeini declaring that the Islamic Republic was "not against cinema but against obscenities" paved the way for the acceptance of cinema as a legitimate form of art and entertainment

Hamid Algar, Islam and Revolution: Writings and Declarations of Imam Khomeini, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1985, p. 258.

S. Zeydabadi-Nejad, op.cit., p. 379.

S. Irfani, New Discourses and Modernity in Post-Revolutionary Iran, The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 1996, pp. 13-27.

Azadeh Faramand, Perspective on recent Iranian cinema, In the New Iranian Cinema. Politics, Representation, and Identity, ed., by Richard Tapper, 2002, pp. 88-89.

Parviz Jahid, op.cit., p. 170.

S. Zeydabadi Nejad, op.cit., p. 379.

Daniele Rugo, Acknowledging Hybrid Traditions: Iran, Hollywood and Transitional cinema, Third Text, Taylor and Francis online, 2017.

Parviz Jahid, op.cit., p. 205.


Azadeh Faramand, Disentangling the International Festival Circuit: Genre and Iranian Cinema, In New Theories and Histories: Global Art Cinema, ed. by Rosalind Galt, Oxford Press University, 2010, p. 272.

Hamid Naficy, Iranian Cinema, In Companion Encyclopaedia of Middle Eastern and North African film, ed. by Oliver Leamann, Routledge, London, 2001, p. 178.

Alireza Razazifar, The emergence and development of digital film making in Iran, University of Bradford, 2015, p. 15.

Bahar Davary, Film review: Women in Iranian cinema moving beyond famous legends, International Women’s Studies, Bridgewater State University, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2018, p. 394.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.